Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776-1831): Greek aristocrat and Russian Foreign Minister becoming First President of an independent nationalist Greece

specific periods

Ioannis Kapodistrias

Greek-Russian relations

Other significant events

1776 Founding of the USA

Born 11 Feb 1776 in Corfu (Ionian Islands) then under Venetian rule

1795-97 University of Padua (medicine, law, philosophy)

1789 French Revolution

1793 decapitation of Louis XVI.

1795 3rd separation of Poland (1791 Polish republican constitution adopted)

1798 - 1808

- Medical career in Corfu

- Solving Kefalonia conflict

- Chief Minister of Septinsular Republic

1797-99 French occupation of Ionian Islands

1799 occupation of Corfu by Russian & Ottoman troops

1799- 1807 Septinsular Republic on Ionian Islands

1807 French re-occupation of Ionian Islands (Tilsit)

1804-1817 Serbian Revolution

1807 Tilsit agreement (defining French and Russian interest spheres)

1808 first steam-boot

1809 - 1822

Entering Russian Foreign Service; (1816-22 Russian co-Foreign Minister after successful negotiations at the Vienna Congress)

Opposed to Greek independence movement

Growing dissatisfaction with British rule over Ionian Islands

1822 Leaves Russia for Switzerland due to Greek Independence War

- 1812 French invasion into Russia

- From 1819 Kapodistria's growing differences with co-FM Nesselrode (1816-56) on Greek Independence

- 1820 A. Pushkin becomes a member of the Filiki Eteria (Greek liberation movement founded 1814 in Odessa)

1809 first telegraph

1810 high-speed book printing machine

1811-1826 Latin America liberty wars

1817 opening of the NY Stock Exchange

1817 Ricardo’s basic economic theories

1820 “ampere” & “volt” in electronics

1820-1823 Spanish Revolution

1792 – (1803) 1815

French Revolution & Napoleonic Wars in all Europe, Northern Africa and the Americas (e.g. Haiti independence))

1814 - 1815

1804 Coronation of Emperor Napoleon I in Paris (Notre Dame), in reaction Beethoven withdraws his dedication of Eroica (Symphony No 3) to Napoleon

Vienna Congress creates post-Napoleonic order in Europe Creation of Holy Alliance (Christian alliance against aggression and (national) revolutions) that practically faltered in 1822/25 & finally in 1880s

1822 - 1827

Leaves Russian Foreign Ministry

Starting to support Greek independence from Geneva

1821 – 1829 Greek Independence War against Sublime Porte (Turkey) (Easter-Sunday 1821 public hanging of Greek Orthodox Church Patriarch, July 1821 Russia breaks off diplomatic ties with Ottoman empire)

1822 last meeting of Holy Alliance in Verona (against Greek independence)

1825 death of Alexander I & Decembrist uprising against Nikolai I

1828 Greek-Russian diplomatic relations established

1822 first photographic picture

1823 first distillation of oil (Caucasus)

1825 first modern style railway

1827 - 1831

First President of Greece (assassinated in office)

1829 Greek independence

1830 July-Revolution in France / Belgian independence & Belgian constitution

1830 Polish November uprising